IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, in press DOI:10.1109/TMI.2016.2643565
In the present proof of principle study, we evaluated the homogenous angular spectrum method for passive acoustic mapping (AS-PAM) of microbubble oscillations using simulated and experimental data. In the simulated data we assessed the ability of AS-PAM to form 3D maps of a single and multiple point sources. Then, in the two dimensional limit, we compared the 2D maps from AS-PAM with alternative frequency and time domain passive acoustic mapping (FD- and TD-PAM) approaches. Finally, we assessed the ability of AS-PAM to visualize microbubble activity in vivo with data obtained during 8 different experiments of FUS-induced blood-brain barrier disruption in 3 nonhuman primates, using a clinical MR-guided FUS system. Our in silico results demonstrate AS-PAM can be used to perform 3D passive acoustic mapping. 2D AS-PAM as compared to FD- PAM and TD-PAM is 10 and 200 times faster respectively and has similar sensitivity, resolution, and localization accuracy, even when the noise was 10-fold higher than the signal. In-vivo, the AS-PAM reconstructions of emissions at frequency bands pertinent to the different types of microbubble oscillations were also found to be more sensitive than TD-PAM. AS-PAM of harmonic-only components predicted safe blood-brain barrier disruption, whereas AS-PAM of broadband emissions correctly identified MR-evident tissue damage. The disparity (3.2mm) in the location of the cavitation activity between the three methods was within their resolution limits. These data clearly demonstrate that AS-PAM is a sensitive and fast approach for PAM, thus providing a clinically relevant method to guide therapeutic ultrasound procedures.
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Clinic Ultrasound Laboratory (クレメント超音波研究室)
Cleveland Clinic (クリーブランド・クリニック),
Lerner Research Institute
Case Western Reserve University